The Fenians - Irish secret society

nedjelja, 7. ožujka 2010.

Fenian movement was a secret Irish organization created by John O'Mahony in 1858.

Fenians were members of the so-called Fenian movement in Ireland and elsewhere, though primarily America and England . The Fenians wanted one simple desire - to secure Irish independence from Britain. During the middle of the 19th Century, a series of factors combined to create a new Irish patriotic movement. This organization was a revolutionary group dedicated to the overthrow of British rule in Ireland. This movement had its roots in both the United States and Ireland and was called Fenian in honour of the Fianna, the ancient Irish warriors.
The movement adopted the pledge-bound format of the secret societies, adding a cellular structure with a Supreme Council and a Head Centre.

Italian Mafia (Cosa Nostra)

The Mafia also known as Cosa Nostra is a secret Sicilian criminal society which is believed to have emerged in late 19th century.

La Cosa Nostra (our thing) is one of the oldest criminal groups in the world and, of course, the most common. The roots go back to the nineteenth century, and a place of its origin is the Italian island of Sicily. Despite multiple efforts to defeat it is still sinewy. Except in Italy, it is present in the United States, France, Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, Russia and other Eastern European countries. Its leadership is in the family communities that have become the prototype of many criminal associations in the world: family Bonnano, Corleone, Madonia ...

European police sources believe that the Sicilian mafia has about 1500 members and nearly fifteen thousand associates in southern Italy. Its main income comes from cocaine and heroin trafficking. The '90 of the last century, concluded a contract with the Colombian cartel, which was given exclusive rights to sell South American cocaine into Europe. From 1992. Sicilian Mafia imported more than two hundred tons of drugs in Europe, where it earned about ten billion dollars. Economic power of the Sicilian Mafia is so great that Cuntrere brothers, Paolo and Pasquale, in 1980. purchased the Caribbean island of Aruba, and with it the hotels, land, banks, police, customs officials, state bureaucracy and politicians.

In addition to the vast economic power of the Sicilian Mafia has the power of a large number of politicians and business people. In the nineties Italy was on the initiative of a few courageous prosecutors conducted a clean arm action with a view to eradicate corruption that has affected all levels of government and business in Italy.

The result of the action, after two years of implementation, was that more than 1500 politicians and business people were arrested and accused of corruption. Until 1993. the third of the members of the Italian Parliament was accused of corruption and the investigation was the director of national media company RAI. It was concluded that a bribe during the eighties and nineties, reaching the figure of about twenty billion dollars, a scandal has forced many important public figures to leave their political positions.

Chinese Triads (secret criminal organization)

Triad Society is a secret Chinese criminal organization.

Chinese Triad organization is named so because of the use of numbers expressed in rituals, which comes from the belief in their magical significance. For members of these organizations number three has a special significance, hence comes the name of the triads. Symbol of the organization is equilateral triangle whose sides symbolize the three basic concepts of heaven, earth and man.

Chinese triads are probably the oldest of all organized crime organization. Historians triad determine the existence of secret societies, but in the fifth century BC. triads were involved in the Taiping rebellion in the nineteenth century, a revolution in the Sun Yat-Sen from the 1911th year in the fight against Japan, 1937-1945. year. During opium wars they were selling opium to British trading companies that have brought opium from India. After China banned opium, they managed to survive by selling heroin. Even today, trade and sale of heroin is the work of Chinese triad. It is thought to hold two thirds of the world market of heroin, which is mainly intended for sale in the United States. They are also dealing with trafficking of illegal migrants in Southeast Asia, Europe and the USA.

Triads are growing rapidly. In Hong Kong they have for more than a century a window to the world and many of the major gangs are located in Hong Kong, with the presence of brotherhoods like Wo Shing Wo and Sun Hee He.

Black Hand (unification or death)

The Black Hand (officially unification or death) is a serbian secret and conspiratorial terrorist organization whose aim is unification of all parts where Serbs live in one country (Serbia).

Kingdom of Serbia continues to strengthen the organization and unification of death, known as the Black Hand, especially popular in the (high) military circles and people who have directly led to power Petar Karađorđević. Unification or death occurs 1911th in the circle of people who have led the government of Yugoslavia, and they felt called to continue to make decisions in critical situations in the country. The leader of the organization was most likely Dragutin Dimitrijević - Apis

Initiation of the members was maximum possible secret and mystic, and the organization received the people of other nationalities as well.

Also, Gavrilo Princip, a member of another organization called "Young Bosnia", supported by the "Black Hand", killed on 28 June 1914th in Sarajevo, Austrian Crown Prince Franz Ferdinand and gave the reason for the World War I.

Terrorist organization Black Hand exists to this day.

The Carbonari (charcoal burners)

The Carbonari (charcoal burners) was a secret brotherhood created for the purpose of overthrowing the Italian government.

They were bearers of freedom and unity movement. Flourished 1796 in Italy, this groups were very similar to Freemasonry. The name refers to the black gowns, masks and hats, carrying the letter K on them. Like other secret societies of the age, the Carbonari had an initiation ceremony, complex symbols, and a hierarchical organization. Its members were scattered across Italy, they had liberal and patriotic ideas and wanted to create a liberal, unified Italian, lower-class Uprising. The Carbonari were led by students from universities along with other Intellectuals. Also included in their program was an anti-Clerical movement. The Carbonari believed that Priests should not have exclusive power in the church system. They were responsible for many uprisings in Spain and in Italy. They inspired many other revolutionary societies to rise up and rebel.

They were gradually absorbed into the Young Italy movement and their influence prepared the way for the Risorgimento movement, which resulted in Italian unification in 1861.